MODELLING LIBRARIES

Power System Library

The Power System Component Library is included as an integral part of RSCAD and contains all the fundamental elements of an electrical power system. Each component model has been developed and tested in-house to ensure accuracy and stability for long term real time simulation. Numerous features have been added to the components based on experience and customer feedback, refining their operation and increasing flexibility.

RTDS Technologies’ simulation experts are continually expanding the component library based on customer requirements and in-house research. Through this effort, we intend to help our clients make the most of their investment. However, if a component model is not available in the standard component libraries, the user can create them using the ComponentBuilder module.

The descriptions below are by no means an exhaustive list of the available components, but provide an overview of the base components.

Real Time Network Solution

Solves nodal equations for simulation circuits including passive elements, breakers and faults. The network solution performs real time decomposition of the admittance matrix which allows continually varying conductance elements to be represented in the circuit. The use of PB5 processor cards permits 90 single phase nodes per network solution, and 2 network solutions per rack, for a total of 180 possible single phase nodes per rack. It allows 100 switches.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.46.20 PM

Transmission Lines and Cables

Traveling wave (Bergeron) and PI section components can represent full coupling between as many as 12 conductors. Frequency dependent model or phase domain components allow a maximum of 6 conductors.

The TLine and Cable modules of the RSCAD software allow the user to define the physical characteristics of the components.

The transmission line component has an embedded node option. This means that, optionally, the transmission line component can also represent the sending and/or receiving end circuit breaker. This reduces the number of nodes solved on the network solution and frees up some space on the network solution. This allows the user to increase the size of the circuit that is solved on that network solution.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.51.08 PM

Machines

Synchronous and induction machines, multi-mass model (maximum 8 masses).

The synchronous machine component has an embedded node option. This means that, optionally, the synchronous machine component can also represent the unit transformer, generator breaker, and the generator terminal bus. This reduces the number of nodes solved on the network solution and frees up some space on the network solution. This allows the user to increase the size of the circuit that is solved on that network solution.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.52.16 PM

Voltage and Current Sources

Sources provide several impedance options to act as network equivalent models and allow the positive and zero sequence impedance to be specified independently.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.50.29 PM

Transformers

Both 2- and 3-winding transformers with on-load tap changers, saturation and hysteresis, and internal faults.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.53.05 PM

Instrument Transformers

Current transformer (CT), capacitive voltage transformer (CVT) with ferroresonance damping circuit, and potential transformer (PT) – all with saturation and hysteresis representation.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.54.19 PM

Distributed Generation

Wind turbines, photovoltaics, fuel cells and various other power sources can be represented by library components, while the corresponding VSC converters can be freely configured in small timestep subnetworks.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.54.49 PM

Static VAR Compensation

SVC model includes TCR (with improved firing) and TSC.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.55.38 PM

Switched Filter

Model provides as many as 12 individually switched filters, and an optional arrestor, without requiring the use of any additional nodes. The entire component is embedded in the main network solution as variable conductance elements. Various filter configurations are available, including single, double, and triple tuned options.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.56.30 PM

Series Compensation

Either fixed or variable (TCSC) compensation components are available with MOV, bypass breaker, spark gap, capacitor bank unbalance, etc.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.57.22 PM

Control System Library


The Control System Component Library allows customized control systems to be created that can interact with the model power system and/or the outside world. In addition to individual control blocks, some complex controllers have been assembled as composite controls and included in the library (e.g. generator controls).

RTDS Technologies’ simulation experts are continually expanding the component library based on customer requirements and in-house research. Models are developed to expand the application and the efficiency of the simulator. RTDS Technologies continues to work hard to accommodate more components on less hardware. Through this effort, we intend to help our clients make the most of their investment.

The descriptions below are by no means an exhaustive list of the available components, but provide an overview of the base components.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 3.59.34 PM

 

  • User-Input: Slider, switch, button, dial.
  • Constants: Integer, floating point, utility.
  • Data conversion: deg -> rad, int -> float, etc.
  • Math functions: exp, log, gain, sqrt, inverse, abs, sum, multiply, divide, fourier transform, integrator, lead-lag, wash-out, etc.
  • Trigonometric functions: sin, cos, tan, arcsin, arcos, 3 phase sin, etc.
  • Standard control blocks: Deadband, pulse generator, edge detector, time, counter, ramp, limiters, meters, phase-locked loop, flip-flops, etc.
  • Logic functions: and, or, nor, bit shift functions, bit -> word, etc.
  • Sequencer functions: wait, apply fault, close breaker, etc.
  • Generator controls: exciters (IEEE Type 1, AC1, ST1, X1, SCRX, IVO, etc.), governors (IEEE Type 1, European BBGOV1, Gas turbine, steam turbine, hydro turbine, etc.), power system stabilizers (PT1ST1, PSS2A, IEEEST, IEE2ST)

Protection and Automation Library


RSCAD contains specialized components for Power System Protection and Automation. The protective relay models are useful when real devices are not available. They are also highly useful for training and educational purposes.

The IEC 61850 models are used to connect a physical device to the RTDS Simulator in a closed loop test environment. The SCADA component provides a DNP3 slave interface to the RTDS Simulator for an external master. The extended file playback model is very useful when a large amount of data needs to be interfaced into the simulation in real time.

The descriptions below are by no means an exhaustive list of the available components, but provide an overview of the base components.

Protective Relays

The library includes multifunction distance, overcurrent, differential, and generator protection models.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.02.12 PM

Power System Metering and Control

The library includes three-phase symmetrical components, impedance measurement with sequence components, 1/3 pole circuit breaker control with sync-check, OLTC control.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.03.56 PM

IEC 61850

The library includes GOOSE messaging (binary and analog); Sampled Values (IEC 61850-9-2) including data delay, jittery, swap and suppression.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.05.11 PM

SCADA

The library includes DNP3 and IEC 60850-5-104 components for SCADA applications.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.06.04 PM

Extended File Playback

This component supports very large file (many GB) playback in COMTRADE or ASCII file format.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.06.57 PM

Small Timestep Subnetworks Library


Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based schemes require small timesteps to properly represent high frequency switching and circuit dynamics. To efficiently include such schemes in larger scale simulations, RTDS Technologies has developed the small timestep (VSC) subnetwork technique.

The small timestep subnetworks operate with timesteps in the range of 1-4 µs and can be interfaced to large scale simulations operating with timesteps in the order of 50 µs. A key feature of small timestep subnetworks is that the circuit and valve topology is user configurable. Two- and three-level converters can be freely configured to provide crow-bar circuits, etc. for PWM switching <2kHz. A fixed topology two-level converter is also available for operation at PWM switching frequencies in the range of 10kHz.

Multiple VSC subnetworks can be linked together by traveling wave transmission lines or cables to create entire sytems running with timesteps of less than 4 µs.

Interface Transformers: The library contains transformers created specifically for interfacing the main network and the portion of the network contained in the small timestep subnetwork. There are two interface transformer models – the three-phase and single-phase model. The single-phase model can be expanded to represent up to 4 single-phase transformers with their primary windings connected in series for connection into the large timestep main network.

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.09.18 PM

Transformers: Both single-phase and three-phase transformers can be used in the small timestep subnetwork. Two- and three-winding transformer models are available, as well as a zero-sequence impedance grounding transformer.

Machines: Induction and synchronous machine models are available in the small timestep.

Transmission Lines and Cables: Traveling wave (Bergeron), frequency-dependent and PI section components are available in the small timestep.

HVDC: The small timestep library contains an extensive selection of valve groups, firing pulse and ramp generators, two- and three-level VSCs, point-to-point and back-to-back VSC models.

The converter models can be easily configured to represent UHVDC (i.e. with several series groups) and allow faults to points both internal and external to the converter. The improved firing algorithm is used to allow the converters to represent a continually variable firing instant with an accuracy of 1µs.

RSCAD also includes several models for Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC).

Screen Shot 2014-11-07 at 4.11.09 PM

Control: The small timestep library contains its own controls library, including constants, logic functions, math functions, data conversion, bit shift functions, and standard control blocks, all for use in the VSC subnetwork.