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  • Hot Topic: Phase Domain Synchronous Machine with Internal Fault

    November 28, 2017

    Phase Domain Synchronous Machine with Internal Fault: _rtds_PDSM_FLT_v3

    A new phase domain synchronous machine model (_rtds_PDSM_FLT_v3) is available in the RSCAD library. Figure 1 shows the three-phase and single-phase view of the machine model.

    Figure 1: phase domain synchronous machine model (_rtds_PDSM_FLT_v3)

    Figure 1: phase domain synchronous machine model (_rtds_PDSM_FLT_v3)

    The phase domain feature of this model makes it capable of simulating synchronous machine internal faults. In order to do so, the self and mutual inductances of machine windings, including faulted windings, must be computed as functions of rotor position and saturation. In this approach, which is called “DQ−Based Method” in this document, it is assumed that not only the healthy windings create a perfect sinusoidally distributed magneto−motive force (MMF), but also, the MMF due to the faulted windings will be sinusoidal. The advantage of this method is that the users do not need to know the information about the distribution of the windings and rotor geometry, and the dq data required for utilizing the component ”lf_sharc_sld_MACV31” is adequate for utilizing this component as well.

    Like the other available phase domain synchronous machine model (rtds_PDSM_FLT_v3), this model is capable of simulation of the stator to ground faults. However, as Figure 2 shows, there are more capabilities in model v3 for simulation stator internal faults.  By selecting the proper choice of the fault, the user will be able to simulate different types of machine internal faults.

    The user may apply the following types of faults anywhere between 1% and 99% of the windings:

    • Turn-to-turn faults in individual phases
    • Turn-to-ground faults in individual phases
    • Phase-to-phase faults
    • Turn-to-turn faults in the field winding
    • Turn-to-ground faults in the field winding


    Figure 2: Comparison of the models v2 and v3 for internal stator faults capabilities.

    Figure 2: Comparison of the models v2 and v3 for internal stator faults capabilities.


    Note that the 1st and 2nd point of fault connection can be selected to be on different points of the winding. As an example, Figure 3 shows the percentage of the 1st and 2nd points of fault to be 50 and 30 percent of the winding from the neutral, respectively.

    Figure 3: Selecting of the position of faults on the stator winding

    Figure 3: Selecting of the position of faults on the stator winding

    Some examples of the fault analysis which are possible to perform with the faulted synchronous machine model “_rtds_PDSM_FLT_v3” are mentioned below:

    • Applying internal faults in all of the stator winding phases. Figure 4 shows an internal fault on phase C. Note that both CJ1 and CJ2 can be used for this aim.
    Figure 4: An internal fault on phase C of the stator winding

    Figure 4: An internal fault on phase C of the stator winding


    • Providing two fault point connections in each stator winding phase, this makes it possible to apply turn-to-turn faults in the same phase, by connecting these two connections together. Figure 5 shows a stator winding turn-to-turn fault on phase B.
    Figure 5: A turn-to-turn fault on phase B of the stator winding

    Figure 5: A turn-to-turn fault on phase B of the stator winding

    • Applying internal fault and turn-to-turn faults on the field winding, since two internal points of the field winding are available for connection. Figure 6 shows a turn-to-turn fault on the field winding. Note that, to see the external field connections, the field excitation type (parameter “fextyp” in General Model Configuration menu) should be set to “Power System Nodes”.
    Figure 6: A turn-to-turn fault on field winding

    Figure 6: A turn-to-turn fault on field winding

    • Applying internal phase to phase stator faults and phase to field faults Figure 7 shows an internal phase A to phase C stator fault.
    Figure 7: An internal phase A to phase C stator fault

    Figure 7: An internal phase A to phase C stator fault

    Should you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at support@rtds.com.

    Learn more!

    Author: Mayssam Amiri, November 2017

    RTDS Technologies Inc.
  • 2017 China User’s Group Meeting a huge success!

    November 20, 2017
    RTDS Technologies would like to thank everyone who participated in last month’s 2017 China User’s Group Meeting! The meeting took place  October 25, 26 & 27 in Beijing, China. It was a great opportunity for Simulator users to share their work, hear about many exciting new applications and advancements of the RTDS Simulator, as well as connect with RTDS Technologies staff and Simulation Specialists and network with other users from their region.
    Feng-Xue-NARIThe three day event was filled with a wide variety of presentations by both RTDS Simulator users and RTDS Technologies staff. Each day was opened with a keynote speech by industry leaders in China. Dr. Feng Xue from NARI, kicked off the event with his presentation titled “System Level Control Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing and Verification of Large UHV AC and DC Power Systems Based on RTDS”.  Dr. Shuyong Li from CSG addressed delegates on the second day with his presentation on the application of the RTDS Simulator in CSG main power grid studies. The third day was opened by Dr. Xie Xiaorong from Tsinghua University who presented on “Analysis and control of sub-synchronous oscillation in power systems”.
    The meeting featured seventeen different user presentations from a wide variety of Simulator users from Chinese electric power utilities, power system equipment manufacturers, universities, and research institutions. This diversity in user perspective created an excellent opportunity for knowledge sharing between those involved in different facets of the power industry. User presentation topics included the simulation of power electronics, simulation of sub-synchronous oscillation in grid integrated with windpower, the use of the Simulator for portable AVR field performance testing, modeling and simulation of large scale control systems with Simulink and CBuilder, and much more. You can access presentations from the event on our Technical Publications page. 
    The UGM also featured presentations by RTDS Technologies staff, focusing mostly on recent hardware and software developments and new applications of the RTDS Simulator. Topics included new developments in protection and automation, including the release of the new Protection & Automation Suite, power electronics applications,  the release of GPES, as well as the new PSCAD to RSCADconversion tool.
    As is customary during our User’s Group Meetings around the world, attendees enjoyed an evening network event, including a theatrical show and dinner. Enjoy browsing pictures from the event!
    RTDS Technologies holds User’s Group Meetings in China, North America, Europe, and  Africa. RTDS Simulator users and all power system colleagues interested in real time digital power system simulation are welcome to attend. Check the RTDS Technologies events page for updates on meetings in your area. We hope to see you there!
    RTDS Technologies Inc.
  • RSCAD Version 5.003: Introducing the Protection and Automation Suite

    November 16, 2017

    This is the third post in a series of four covering various features of the newest version of the RSCAD software – Version 5.003.

    Introducing the Protection and Automation Suite (PASuite)

    Test and validate substation automation protocols with the RTDS Simulator

    The all-new Protection and Automation Suite (PASuite) in is a standalone program launched from RSCAD that can communicate with the RTDS Simulator’s GTNET/GTNETx2 card or other external devices compatible with a variety of modern substation automation protocols, as follows: IEC 61850 MMS servers, DNP3 masters or oustations, IEC 60870-5-104 masters, and MODBUS masters.

    IEC 61850 MMS Server: The PASuite can be used to simulate IEC 61850 MMS servers using SCL files. Functionality is included in the suite to validate the SCL file prior to simulation. The Suite provides options for configuring the server (including GOOSE message publishing parameters), browsing the IED model and submodels as per the SCL file, and setting values within the submodels (i.e. Data Objects and Data Attributes). The server simulator allows the user to simulate GOOSE communication between an outside IED and the simulated IED. The simulated server can also subscribe to GOOSE messages.

    DNP3 Master and Outstation: The PASuite can simulate both DNP3 masters and outstations, allowing the user the ability to poll information from a remote outstation or connect the simulation with a remote master, respectively. The simulated DNP3 outstation’s defined database can be created new or loaded and/or edited by the user. Once the simulation is started, users can be make changes to data elements in the outstation database. When simulating a master, the user can retrieve information from the remote outstation via commands defined by the standard.

    The user interface of the DNP3 Master simulation tool of the PASuite

    IEC 60870-5-104 Master: The PASuite can simulate a master and retrieve information from remote -104 slave stations. Information can be acquired via a number of control commands including General Interrogation (GI). A slave can configure what data is sent in response to a GI.

    MODBUS Master: The PASuite can be set up as a MODBUS master and poll information from remote MODBUS slaves. Data is polled via Reference Points and Range Points which define groups of consecutive I.P. addresses on which a given MODBUS command is performed. A variety of standard MODBUS function codes are supported.

    For more information on the PASuite or other features of RSCAD Version 5.003, please email marketing@rtds.com.

    RTDS Technologies Inc.
  • RSCAD Version 5.003: Introducing PSCAD to RSCAD conversion

    November 15, 2017

    This is the second post in a series of four covering various features of the newest version of the RSCAD software – Version 5.003.

    Introducing the PSCAD to RSCAD conversion tool

    Bring cases from PSCAD into RSCAD for real time simulation with minimal intervention

    RSCAD contains several tools for converting and importing circuits developed in other softwares, such as PSSE, CYME, and MATLAB/Simulink. The latest case conversion tool to be released for the RTDS Simulator is the PSCAD to RSCAD Conversion Tool, which takes .pscx files from PSCAD and imports them as Draft files for the RTDS Simulator. PSCAD is a PC-based electromagnetic transient simulation tool – an industry standard power system transient simulation tool used worldwide. The new conversion tool allows users to bring their PSCAD cases into real time using the RTDS Simulator.

    The conversion tool uses hierarchy boxes in RSCAD to make managing systems of all sizes easier. Imported cases are automatically split into sections using hierarchy boxes separated by T-lines which exist in the original network. In the example below, the breaker on the receiving end of the T-line in the original case has been automatically absorbed into the RSCAD T-line model’s end-point in order to reduce the node count of the RSCAD simulation.

    The conversion tool offers flexible options for changing simulation parameters, creating subsystems, and splitting the network. The rack number, simulation timestep, and the maximum number of nodes per subnetwork are all parameters that can be adjusted from the conversion program. The user can configure subsystems from within the tool itself as well, and has at-a-glance access to the number of load units per hierarchy box and the length of transmission lines in the system. The circuit can easily be split over multiple racks and/or chassis to achieve the user’s desired balance of nodes and component loading.

    The conversion tool contains built-in conversion scripts (written in JavaScript) and allows user-defined scripts which allow the user to specify or override the way in which components are translated from PSCAD to RSCAD. This provides an opportunity for the user to translate new or non-master library PSCAD components which may not yet be written into the tool.

    For more information on the PSCAD to RSCAD conversion tool or other features of RSCAD Version 5.003, please email marketing@rtds.com.

    RTDS Technologies Inc.
  • RSCAD Version 5.003: Introducing GPES

    November 13, 2017

    This is the first post in a series of four covering various features of the newest version of the RSCAD software – Version 5.003.

    Introducing GPES: a new FPGA-based power electronics solver

    Real time power electronics simulation – custom converter modelling at timesteps in the sub-microsecond range

    GPES is a new operating firmware for the RTDS Simulator’s GTFPGA Unit

    The all-new general power electronics solver (GPES) supports the real time modelling of power electronics on the RTDS Simulator’s GTFPGA Unit. The motivation behind the development of the GPES is  to provide a highly flexible platform for modelling custom converter topologies with a reduced time step. The dedicated, FPGA-based hardware which runs GPES is capable of high-density calculation in parallel with the simulation running on the central RTDS Simulator hardware. Each GTFPGA Unit running GPES can support up to 128 nodes and 256 branches.

    GPES uses the same LC modelling approach as the small timestep subnetworks (VSC bridge box) solved on the NovaCor’s processor – however, the GTFPGA Unit’s enhanced computational abilities mean that more nodes, more switches, and a reduced timestep are possible. The smaller time step will result in smaller L and C values for ON and OFF switching state representation which will result in more accurate representation of the switching losses for freely configurable converters.

    Similarly to the small timestep subnetwork environment, GPES network development is done within a special GPES bridge box component in RSCAD (shown below). The new GPES tab in the Master Library contains a limited selection of components that can be used within the GPES bridge box. The GPES bridge box connects to a small timestep bridge box running on a NovaCor or PB5. That means the circuit running on GPES can be connected to a model running in the small timestep and exchange control signals with the small timestep. This way, any components required in the case which cannot be modeled on GPES (e.g. machines or dynamic loads) can be modelled in the small timestep as shown below. The GPES also has an Aurora interfacing block that allows firing pulses to be received directly from external controls.

    The new GPES bridge box component is used for developing GPES-based networks and interfacing them with the chassis- or rack-based simulation

    The GTFPGA Unit running GPES is connected with the main RTDS Simulator hardware via fibre cable (connected from the rear of the GTFPGA Unit to the rear of the NovaCor chassis or GTWIF-based rack running the simulation) as shown in the below diagram.

    For more information on GPES or other features of RSCAD Version 5.003, please email marketing@rtds.com.

    Take a few seconds to watch our RSCAD Version 5.003 release video here:

    RTDS Technologies Inc.