The RTDS® Simulator’s new faulted transformer model, based on a terminal duality equivalent, is the industry’s leading approach to real-time transformer simulation. The model addresses common engineering challenges by replacing the popular star equivalent circuit with an equivalent based on terminal duality principles.

Though the star equivalent may represent the terminal conditions correctly, the inductance branches don’t necessarily represent the real physical leakages of a transformer. The new duality-based model is a more realistic and practically accurate representation of a transformer’s magnetic circuit.

The new model includes a leakage branch, which allows for a more accurate prediction of the magnetic inrush current, as well as full representation of the mutual coupling between branches, allowing for better model performance at the terminals.

Under asymmetrical conditions that might be caused by internal faults, tap changers, or winding offsets, the model allows for the accurate evaluation of short circuit reactance by decomposing the leakage flux into axial and transverse components. Evaluating the short circuit reactance with a high degree of accuracy under these conditions has never before been possible with a real-time simulator.

The RTDS Simulator offers a superior experience for engineers interested in the transient behaviour of transformers and the comprehensive closed-loop testing of transformer protection prior to deployment.