Real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing has been used in the power industry for over twenty-five years. Originally developed as a solution for flexibly testing the control and protection associated with HVDC projects, the application of the technology is now widespread and varied, and today real-time simulators are used particularly effectively in the smart grid technologies space. The devices associated with and required by smart grids have the potential to interact with eachother and with existing technologies, and given the fast-acting nature of modern control and protection systems, the tools required to study them in detail must be capable of representing subcycle phenomena. Real-time simulators offer an electromagnetic transient representation of the power system along with the ability to connect devices in a closed-loop with the simulated network for flexible, controlled, and safe testing prior to deployment. This panel session highlights recent exciting projects from real-time simulator users validating and de-risking enabling technologies for a smarter, more sustainable grid.
Name and Affiliation: Christian Jegues, RTDS Technologies Inc.
Abstract: This presentation provides a brief introduction to real-time EMT simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing in the context of grid modernization technologies, including case studies from various institutions around the globe. The presentation will conclude with a demonstration of the closed-loop testing of a commercially-available intelligent recloser connected to a simulated distribution feeder in the RTDS Simulator.
Name and Affiliation: Rajne Ilievska, Rafael Mihalic, Urban Rudez, University of Ljubljana; Eduard Kushnikov, Relematika Ltd; Janez Zakonjsek, Relarte Ltd.
Abstract: In 2018, University of Ljubljana (UL) has developed an innovative algorithm for under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) protection based on rate-of-change-of-frequency (RoCoF). In August 2019, Relematika Ltd. agreed to support UL efforts by implementing the algorithm into their Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) from the TOR 300 series. This presentation will provide the results of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing of the algorithm with real-time digital simulator (RTDS). We were observing how the algorithm affected the UFLS scheme as a whole, i.e. from the system-integrity protection scheme (SIPS) perspective. Testing setup tried to mimic the real-life situation by combining both the physical IED and the software-based replica of the algorithm, since realistic conditions involve different kinds of IEDs in diverse locations across the EPS. We represented two different electric power system (EPS) testing environments in the RTDS simulator: i) IEEE 9-bus test system as one of most widely used internationally accepted UFLS testing model and ii) a microgrid test system as a typical representative of extremely low inertia networks. Both helped to prove that the UFLS innovation is robust, efficient and offers a very useful way of utilizing RoCoF for UFLS purposes. An exceptionally positive side-product of the project was establishment of improved RoCoF filtering technique that cleared all doubts regarding the algorithm’s potential.
Name and Affiliation: Jose Rueda Torres, Technical University of Delft
Abstract: This presentation overviews the application of Fast Active Power Regulation (FAPR) to different energy sources in a Renewable-energy hub. The study includes a solar PV farm, a Type-4 full converter-based Wind Turbine, and an Electrolyser acting as a responsive load. Real-time simulations, conducted on a synthetic model of the North of Netherlands Transmission Network, will illustrate the effectiveness of the studied FAPR controllers.
Name and Affiliation: Panos Kotsampopoulos, National Technical University of Athens
Abstract: Real-time CHIL and PHIL simulation is proving to be an efficient tool for research and testing. This presentation includes selected experiences of CHIL and PHIL testing of smart grids and microgrids at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). HIL testing of primary and secondary control of microgrids will be presented in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A testing chain for the validation of smart grid controllers is proposed and applied in the testing of a coordinated voltage controller in a combined CHIL and PHIL setup.
Finally, the HIL testing of a distributed control scheme based on Multi-Agent Systems will be presented. The benefits of using HIL simulation for smart grid and microgrid testing will be explained.