Meticulously engineered models for high-fidelity HIL testing

Two power systems engineers test relay switch.

Introducing the Universal Converter Model for enhanced real-time power electronics simulation

Higher switching frequencies, improved accuracy and stability, and better hardware efficiency than ever before. Learn more about the Universal Converter Model (UCM), the newest solution for power electronics modelling with the RTDS Simulator, below.

Achieve switching frequencies of ~200 kHz – without artificial losses or noisy waveforms

Power electronics-based schemes require small simulation timesteps to properly represent high frequency switching and circuit dynamics. The RTDS Simulator is designed to achieve extremely small timesteps, allowing engineers to flexibly model the behaviour of power electronics (and the AC network) over a large frequency range in real time. Real control hardware can then be connected to the simulated network and tested to significantly reduce risk and improve performance prior to deployment.

The most accurate power electronic models available thanks to predictive switching

The RTDS Simulator’s power electronics models are executed in the Substep environment, which contains fixed-topology converter models based on a groundbreaking predictive switching algorithm. Predictive switching allows the converter models to switch states resistively (rather than using LC switching) while still running at a very small timestep.

  • Eliminate artificial losses – with resistive switching, converter losses are defined by the user
  • Reduce currently/voltage oscillation-induced noise on the waveforms
  • Improve numerical stability – models are not decoupled/interfaced at the DC bus

Power electronic models run directly on the main processing hardware at a small timestep

The RTDS Simulator’s power electronic models have been finessed so that they can run directly on NovaCor, the simulator’s main processing hardware, rather than external FPGA-based hardware additions. Running power electronics directly on the same powerful multi-core processor – and indeed, with the same software package – that handles the main network simulation has big advantages.

  • No additional cost to model power electronics on NovaCor
  • Ease of use for both hardware and software – no need to program/interface an FPGA or gain familiarity with a new software tool
  • No concerns regarding simulation stability or accuracy due to the existence of a hardware interface

Popular power electronics applications

Distributed Energy Resources

Simulate two- and three-level converters switched at frequencies in the tens of kHz range and test control or power Hardware-in-the-Loop with the simulation.

Solar PV panels with inverter
engineer inspecting valve


Simulate LCC, VSC, and MMC-based schemes and comprehensively test the controls for complex systems throughout development and prior to commissioning.


Simulate custom-topology converters at sub-microsecond timesteps and test their controls in the loop with the simulation

All-electric ship

Models available in the substep environment​​

  • 2 and 3 level VSCs (resistively switched)
  • Freely configurable power electronics (individual switching components)
  • Point to point and back to back VSCs
  • MMC valve and control models
  • Firing pulse and ramp generators
  • Lines, machines, transformers and loads for full small timestep circuit simulation